Charcoal

Charcoal is a lightweight black carbon residue produced by removing water and other volatile content from organic materials.

The advantage of burning charcoal compared to burning wood is the absence of water and other components. This allows charcoal to burn at higher temperatures, and emit very little smoke. Regular wood might release a significant amount of steam, organic volatiles, and unburnt carbon particles (soot) in its smoke, when it is not burned completely.

Palm Shells
Palm Kernel Shell Charcoal The .

Palm Shells
Coconut Shell Charcoal The .

Preparation

Charcoal is usually produced by slow pyrolysis, i.e. the heating of wood or other organic materials in the absence (or low level) of oxygen. This process is called carbonisation. The final charcoal consists of a high level of carbon.

Content

Palm Kernel Shell Charcoal
Moisture 15-16%
Ash 0.5%
Chlorine 0.09%
Sulfur 0.02%
Carbon 43.2%
Hydrogen 6.6%
Nitrogen 0.11%
Gross Calorific Value 4,800 kWh/MT - 17.18 GJ/MT
Net Calorific Value 4,400 kWh/MT - 15.74 GJ/MT
Coconut Shell Charcoal
Moisture 0%
Ash 0.6%
Chlorine 0.11%
Sulfur 0.03%
Carbon 51.2%
Hydrogen 5.7%
Nitrogen 0.13%
Gross Calorific Value 5,650 kWh/MT - 20.35 GJ/MT
Net Calorific Value 5,300 kWh/MT - 19.10 GJ/MT
Source: SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden
Note: Most combustions release energy-containing vapors which is not always realized. The lower (net) heating value takes into account only the useful heat (i.e. the heat not to be lost in the steam). The net calorific value is always less than the upper (gross calorific value). In a conventional boiler the steam leaving the system is untapped whereas the condensing boiler also utilizes a portion of the energy of the steam by allowing it to condense whereby liquefaction heat is realized.